THR Summit Spain 2018

Primer Congreso de Ciencia del Cigarrillo Electrónico en España organizado por ANESVAP y MOVE

THR Summit Spain 2018

Tenemos el profundo placer de anunciar que, tras cinco años de trabajo duro para conseguirlo, el próximo 19 de septiembre de 2018 se celebrará en Barcelona el primer THR Summit Spain o primer Congreso sobre Ciencia de Reducción de Daños por Tabaquismo en España, organizado por ANESVAP y MOVE.

Por primera vez en nuestro país se reunirán los mayores expertos, a nivel mundial, en ciencia de reducción de daños con la finalidad de dar a conocer la realidad sobre el vapeo a la sociedad, las autoridades sanitarias, políticas, médicos, asociaciones médicas y medios de comunicación españoles.

Tenemos ya confirmada la asistencia de grandes exponentes a nivel nacional e internacional como el Doctor Konstantinos Farsalinos, el Profesor Riccardo Polosa, el Profesor Gerry Stimson, la Profesora Linda Bauld, el Profesor Bernd Mayer, el Doctor Attila Danko, el Profesor Miguel de la Guardia, el Doctor Jacques Le Houezec y muchísimos otros que seguramente conocéis. La web oficial del congreso donde podréis encontrar toda la información al respecto ya esta operativa y es: http://thrsummitspain.org

La financiación del evento se va a realizar íntegramente mediante los fondos de Anesvap, por lo que, una vez más, necesitamos de vuestra ayuda.

Por supuesto, en caso de no realizar una donación, el simple hecho de asociarte a Anesvap como socio de número siempre será una gran ayuda para nosotros y para organizar el propio evento. No cabe duda de que semejante evento implica un importante esfuerzo para la Asociación y, por tanto, toda ayuda o donativo será más que bien recibido. Para ello, hemos habilitado esta plataforma de crowdfunding donde se realizará la colecta para apoyar el evento. Los donativos pueden realizarse vía transferencia bancaria o por PayPal en las cuentas especificadas al efecto.

Muchísimas gracias a todos por ayudarnos a cumplir este gran sueño.

 

Fuente:AnesVap

 

Vapeadores pasivos ¿Existen?

Vapeadores pasivos ¿Existen?

Sabemos que cada vez hay una mayor concienciación por ser respetuoso con aquellos que no fuman y quieren disfrutar de espacios sin humo. Siempre se ha hablado de fumadores pasivos, pero tras la invención del cigarro electrónico surge el concepto de los “vapeadores pasivos”

Se conocen bien las consecuencias que tiene aspirar el humo del tabaco ya seas fumador o simplemente te encuentres junto a uno. Pero queremos que conozcas cómo afecta el vapor de tu cigarrillo electrónico a los vapeadores pasivos.

Recientemente, un estudio del Departamento de Química Analítica de la Universitat de Vàlencia (publicado en Microchemical Journal) ha querido conocer cómo afecta el humo y el vapor, así como los diferentes componente a la calidad del aire de diferentes estancias. Uno de los principales resultados, es que se demuestra que vapear, emite muchísimo  menos partículas perjudiciales que el humo de un cigarro tradicional.

Para la investigación se ha estudiado la calidad del aire de diferentes estancias y el aliento de los   vapeadores y fumadores pasivos.

Las conclusiones han sido que ambas opciones enrarecen el ambiente de los lugares cerrados donde se han utilizado, pero que tiene diferentes consecuencias para vapeadores y fumadores pasivos.

Algunos de los niveles que se han medido han sido los de CO2 y CO, demostrando finalmente que los vapeadores pasivos se encuentran en un ambiente igual al de una atmósfera limpia. En cuanto a la nicotina presente en el aliento, aunque sí que hay una exposición en vapeadores, esta es considerablemente menor que para fumadores pasivos.

Queda demostrado pues que a pesar de que el vapor, ante todo el que contiene nicotina, no es totalmente inocuo, tiene consecuencias mínimas para los vapeadores pasivos. Tras este estudio se puede comprobar que la calidad del aire apenas se ve afectada y que los químicos que retiene una persona que se encuentra junto a un vapeador son levemente perjudiciales.

Desde VaporMadrid te animamos a que te informes sobre todos nuestros productos, pásate al vapeo y evita perjudicar a los demás con el humo del tabaco tradicional.

El vapor de los e-cigarrillos es hasta un 95% menos tóxico que el humo del tabaco

Cada vez hay más instituciones del área de la salud que consideran que los e-cigarrillos son menos perniciosos que el tabaco convencional

El vapor de los e-cigarrillos

Aún a día de hoy existe una gran controversia sobre la eficacia de los cigarrillos electrónicos –o ‘e-cigarrillos’– para dejar de fumar. También sobre su seguridad para sus usuarios y los ‘vapeadores pasivos’. Sin embargo, un nuevo estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores de la empresa tabaquera British American Tobacco, con sede en Londres (Reino Unido), parece arrojar luz sobre esta controversia. Y es que según sus resultados, el vapor de los e-cigarrillos contiene una cantidad hasta un 95% menor de los compuestos tóxicos que se encuentran en humo del tabaco. De hecho, el trabajo destaca que la mayoría de los compuestos tóxicos que se detectan en las emisiones de los cigarrillos ‘convencionales’ no están presentes en la de los electrónicos.

Enlace a la publicación del estudio “en Ingles”

Como explica Kevin McAdam, director de esta investigación publicada en la revista «Chemical Research in Toxicology», «a día de hoy contamos con muy pocas publicaciones que hayan examinado la composición química total de los e-cigarrillos. Y es que la mayoría de trabajos se han centrado en compuestos específicos o en grupos de compuestos. Sin embargo, nosotros hemos evaluado un total de 142 compuestos, incluidos aquellos catalogados por la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos (FDA) como ‘dañinos o potencialmente dañinos’, los recogidos en la lista de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), y los que ya se han comunicado que son generados por los e-cigarrillos».

Menor número y cantidad

Para llevar a cabo el estudio, los autores contaron con la colaboración de laboratorios independientes que se encargaron de medir la cantidad de compuestos químicos que, ya observados en el humo del tabaco, podrían encontrarse también en el vapor de los e-cigarrillos. Es el caso, entre otros muchos, de los óxidos de carbono y nitrógeno, de los fenoles, de la nicotina y compuestos relacionados, de metales, de hidrocarbonos polinucleares aromáticos, o de las aminas aromáticas.

Concretamente, los investigadores evaluaron los potenciales compuestos tóxicos emitidos por un cigarrillo convencional y por un e-cigarrillo. Y para ello utilizaron ‘robots vapeadores’ y ‘fumadores’ en habitaciones estancas y recogieron las emisiones. Como indica Kevin McAdam, «dado que sabíamos que los niveles de algunos constituyentes de los e-cigarrillos iban a ser muy bajos, también analizamos el aire de ambas habitaciones para detectar los posibles contaminantes».

A día de hoy contamos con muy pocas publicaciones que hayan examinado la composición química total de los e-cigarrillos

Los resultados mostraron que, comparados frente a los encontrados en el humo del cigarrillo, los niveles de productos tóxicos recogidos en la lista de la OMS fueron hasta un 99% inferiores en el caso del vapor de los e-cigarrillos. Y asimismo, que las cantidades de productos ‘dañinos o potencialmente dañinos’ según el listado de la FD fueron un 92% inferiores.

Sin embargo, hubo cuatro compuestos que fueron más comunes en las emisiones de los e-cigarrillos que en las del tabaco convencional: propilenglicol, glicerina vegetal, mentol y cromo.

Como refiere Kevin McAdam, «esperamos encontrar propilenglicol y glicerina en el aerosol dado que se emplean para fabricar los e-líquidos de los e-cigarrillos. Y asimismo, mentol, pues se utiliza para conferirles sabor. La presencia de cromo se atribuye al cable de nicromo que se usa para el calentamiento del e-líquido, pero la exposición diaria parece menor a la que tiene lugar con el tabaco».

¿Más seguros que el tabaco?

En definitiva, y según este nuevo estudio, parece que el vapor de los e-cigarrillos contiene productos tóxicos, pero en una cantidad ínfima comparada con el humo del tabaco. Pero eso no quiere decir en ningún caso que los e-cigarrillos sean totalmente seguros. De hecho, todavía hay una cantidad de un 5% de productos tóxicos cuando se comparan con los cigarrillos –y de un 8% en el caso de los compuestos ‘dañinos o potencialmente dañinos’.

Y llegados a este punto, ¿puede considerarse que este estudio es fiable? Hay que tener en cuenta que British American Tobacco, empresa responsable de la investigación, se dedica a la venta de e-cigarrillos. Pero también vende –y con un volumen mucho mayor– tabaco ‘convencional’, por lo que puede suponerse que no haya ninguna intención ‘oculta’ y los resultados sean fiables.

Es más; cada vez son más numerosas las instituciones dedicadas a la salud que, como la Fundación Británica del Corazón o Cancer Research UK, consideran que los e-cigarrillos son menos nocivos que el tabaco tradicional. Y asimismo, el Ministerio de Sanidad de Reino Unidopublicó recientemente un informe en el que se decía que los e-cigarrillos son un 95% más seguros que sus homónimos convencionales.

 

No hay más excusas: Aquí están 186 investigaciones en favor del ecig

Dejar-de-Fumar2

 

“No hay suficiente investigación y el apoyo de cigarrillo electrónico”. “Las búsquedas son pocas, y no es capaz de demostrar nada”. “Sólo en treinta años usted tendrá una cierta evaluación de impacto del ecig la salud “. ¿Cuántas veces has escuchado estas declaraciones para justificar una falta de interés por los cigarrillos electrónicos. Pues bien, a partir de ahora no habrá más excusas que mantener. Publicamos a continuación la lista de la investigación científica en apoyo del cigarrillo electrónico (glicol, glicerina, nicotina) y en el daño cigarrillos tradicionales (ardor, tabaco) publicado hasta la fecha. Un paciente trabajo de recuperación de los datos a partir de los años 80. Contamos con 186 y, como una demostración de lo que decimos, para publicar uno por uno. En la primera columna la numeración de cada estudio, en el segundo año de publicación, mientras que el tercer título de la investigación realizada por los autores y, cuando sea posible, un enlace al documento original. Buena lectura!

 

Numero 
 Año 
Estudios cientificos y datos 
1 2015 Schweitzer KS, Chen SX, Law S, et al. (2015) – Endothelial disruptive proinflammatory effects of nicotine and e-cigarette vapor exposures. – American Journal of Physiology (2015)
Information: Authors exposed cells with plasma nicotine levels between 162.000 and 3,240.000 ng/ml and call this “relatively high”
Funny fact: Lethal levels are between 2.000 and 4.000 ng/ml! Normal levels for smokers/vapers are between 20-30 ng/ml! (HT Bernd Mayer!)
2 2015 Tierney PA, Karpinski CD, Brown JE, et al. (2015) – Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids. – Tobacco Control (2015))
Commentary by Michael Siegel:: Study produces unwarranted scare
3 2015 Neilson L, Mankus C, Throne D, et al. (2015) – Development of an in vitro cytotoxicity model for aerosol exposure using 3D reconstructed human airway tissue; application for assessment of e-cigarette aerosol. – Toxicology in Vitro (2015)
4 2015 Polosa R. (2015) – Electronic cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lung. – BMC Medicine (2015)
5 2015 Perkins KA, Karelitz JL, Michael VC (2015) – Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes. – Drug Alcohol Dependence (2015)
6 2015 O’Connell G, Colard S, Cahours X, Prtchard (2015) – An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room. Int. Journal Research & PH (2015)
7 2015 Farsalinos KE, Voudris V, Poulas K (2015) – E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in ‘dry puff’ conditions. Addiction (2015)
Commentary by J-F Etter:: The recent scares were without substance, and the general verdict that e-cigs areat least 95% safer than smoking remains solid. 
8 2015 Etter J-F (2015) – E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research priorities. – BMC Medicine (2015))
9 2015 Cobb CO, Hendricks PS, Eissenberg T (2015) – Electronic cigarettes and nicotine dependence: evolving products, evolving problems. – BMC Medicine (2015)
10 2015 Farsalinos KE, Gillmann IG et al. (2015) – Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids. – Int. Journal Environment Research & PH (2015)
11 2015 Varlet V, Farsalinos KE, Augsburger M (2015) – Toxicity Assessment of Refill Liquids for Electronic Cigarettes. – In. Journal Environment Research & PH (2015)
12 2015 Amato MS, Boyle RG, Levy D (2015) – How to define e-cigarette prevalence? Finding clues in the use frequency distribution. – Tobacco Control (2015)
13 2015 Hajek P (2015) – The development and testing of new nicotine replacement treatments: from ‘nicotine replacement’ to ‘smoking replacement’. Addiction (2015)
14 2015 Scheffler S, Dieken H, Krischenowski O, et al. (2015) – Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (2015)
Information: Authors apparently ignored ISO 10993-5. They exposed NHBE cells with 200 puffs of e-cig aersol to generate a response. This means: They exposed the cells to as much aersol as needed to have toxicity. With this methodology, any chemical would be toxic. (HT Konstantinos Farsalinos!)
15 2015 O’Brien B, Knight-West O, Walker N, et al. (2015) – E-cigarettes versus NRT for smoking reduction or cessation in people with mental illness: secondary analysis of data from the ASCEND trial. Tobacco Induced Diseases (2015)
16 2015 Farsalinos K, Voudris V, Poulas K (2015) – Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature.. Int. Journal Environment Research & PH (2015))
17 2015 Tayyarah R, Long GA (2015) – Comparison of select analytes in aerosol from e-cigarettes with smoke from conventional cigarettes and with ambient air. – Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2015)
18 2015 Talih S, Balhas Z, Salman R, et al. (2015) – „Direct Dripping“: A High-Temperature, High-Formaldehyde Emission Electronic Cigarette Use Method. – Nicotine Tobacco Research (2015)
19 2015 Tackett AP, Lechner WV, DeMond MG, et al. (2015) Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers. – Addiction (2015)
20 2015 Shiffman S et al. (2014) – The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens’ and Adult Smokers’ Interest in Electronic Cigarettes. – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2015)
21 2015 Al-Delaimy WK, Myers MG, Leas EC, et al. (2015) – E-Cigarette Use in the Past and Quitting Behavior in the Future: A Population-Based Study. – American Journal of Public Health (2015)
22 2015 Moore G, Hewitt G, Evans J, et al. (2015) – Electronic-cigarette use among young people in Wales: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys. – BMJ Open (2015)
23 2015 Etter J-F, Eissenberg T (2015) – Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. – Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2015)
24 2015 Meier E M et al. (2015) – Which Nicotine Products Are Gateways to Regular Use?– American Journal of Preventive Medicine (2015)
25 2015 Mishra A, Chatuvedi P, Datta S, et al. (2015) – Harmful effects of nicotine. – Indian Journal Medicine Paediatric Oncology (2015)
26 2014 Rooke C, Cunningham-Burley S, Amos A (2014) – Smokers’ and ex-smokers’ understanding of electronic cigarettes: a qualitative study. – Tobacco Control (2014)
27 2014 Brown J, Beard E, Kotz D, Michie S, West R (2014) – Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study. – Addiction (2014)
28 2014 Misra M, Leverette RD, Cooper BT, et al. (2014) – Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols. – Int. Journal Research & PH (2014)
29 2014 Tierney PA, Karpinski CD, Brown JE et al. (2014) – Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids. – Tobacco Control (2014)
30 2014 Pepper JK, Ribisl KM, Emery SL, Brewer NT (2014) – Reasons for starting and stopping electronic cigarette use. – Int. Journal Research & PH (2014)
31 2014 Evans SE, Hoffman AC (2014) – Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects. – Tobacco Control (2014)
32 2014 McNeill A, Etter J-F, Farsalinos KE, Hajek P, et al. (2014) – A critique of a World Health Organizationcommissioned report and associated paper on electronic cigarettes. – Addiction (2014)
33 2014 Hajek P, Etter JF, Benowitz N, Eissenberg T, McRobbie H (2014) – Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit. – Addiction (2014)
34 2014 Hajek P (2014) – Electronic cigarettes have a potential for huge public health benefit. – BMC Medicine (2014)
35 2014 Bekki K, Uchiyama S et al. (2014) – Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes. – International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2014)
36 2014 Foulds J, Veldheer S et al. (2014) – Development of a questionnaire to assess dependence on electronic cigarettes in a large sample of ex-smoking e-cig users – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2014)
37 2014 McRobbie H, Bullen C et al. (2014) – Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction – Cochrane Library (2014)
38 2014 Pepper J.K. et al. (2014) – Adolescent Males‘ Awareness of and Willingness to Try Electronic Cigarettes – Journal of Adolescent Health (2014)
39 2014 Goniewicz M L et al. (2014) – Rise in Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adolescents in Poland – Journal of Adolescent Health (2014)
40 2014 Krishnan-Sarin S et al (2014) E-cigarette Use Among High School and Middle School Adolescents in Connecticut – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2014)
41 2014 Farsalinos K., Romagna G. et al. (2014) Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers – Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (2014)
42 2014 Pepper J.K. et al. (2014) How U.S. Adults Find Out About Electronic Cigarettes: Implications for Public Health Messages – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2014)
43 2014 Paradise J. (2014) Electronic Cigarettes: Smoke-Free Laws, Sale Restrictions, and the Public Health – American Journal of public health
44 2014 Marini et al. (2014), Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide – Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
45 2014 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2014) E-Cigarettes: Impact on Individual and Population Health – Tobacco Control Volume 23, suppl 2
46 2014 Stimson G. V. (2014) Public health leadership and electronic cigarette users – European Journal of Public Health
47 2014 Curry L. and Lee YO (2014) E-cigarettes made especially for inmates – Tobacco Control 2014
48 2014 Chatham-Stephens K. et al. (2014) Notes from the Field: Calls to Poison Centers for Exposures to Electronic Cigarettes — United States, September 2010–February 2014 – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) April 4, 2014 / 63(13);292-293
49 2014 Rodrigo Córdoba García (2014) El desafío de los cigarrillos electrónicos/The challenge of electronic cigarettes – Atención Primaria
50 2014 Nutt D.J.,· Phillips L.D., · Balfour D. et al. (2014) Estimating the Harms of Nicotine-Containing Products Using the MCDA Approach – Eur Addict Res 2014;20:218–225
51 2014 Dagaonkar R., Udwadia Z. (2014) Water Pipes and E-cigarettes : New Faces of an Ancient Enemy – Journal of the association of physicians of india vol 62
52 2014 Brown J., West R. (2014) Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokers – Addictive Behaviors
53 2014 Cummings, K. et al. (2014) E-Cigarettes and Cancer Patients – Journal of Thoracic Oncology
54 2014 Shawna L. Carroll Chapman, Li-Tzy Wua (2014) – E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: A review and comparison – Journal of Psychiatric Research
55 2014 Kim A. et al. (2014) E-cigarette Advertising Expenditures in the U.S., 2011–2012 – American Journal of Preventive Medicine
56 2014 Saitta, D., Ferro, G. and Polosa, R. (2014) Achieving appropriate regulations for electronic cigarettes. Ther Adv Chronic Dis 3 February 2014 (Epub ahead of print). DOI: 10.1177/2040622314521271
57 2014 Farsalinos K., Stimsonb G. (2014), Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications ? – International Journal of Drug Policy
58 2014 Kubica P. , Wasik A., Kot-Wasik A. and Namieśnik J. (2014) – An evaluation of sucrose as a possible contaminant in e-liquids for electronic cigarettes by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry – Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
59 2014 Vallée JP., Gallois P., Le Noc Y. (2014) e-cigarette: vapoter vaut-il mieux que fumer ? – Médecine. Volume 10, Numéro 3, 121-6, Mars 2014, Stratégies
60 2014 Leverette R.D., Misra, M., Cooper, B;T. and Bennett, M.B. (2014) Potential toxicity of electronic cigarette liquids and aerosols as measured by four in vitro assays – 53rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology; Phoenix, AZ.
61 2014 Carlos A. et al. (2014) The Electronic Cigarette. Official Statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the Efficacy, Safety and Regulation of Electronic Cigarettes – Archivos de Bronconeumología
62 2014 Faure S., Babin S. et al. (2014) Managing tobacco addiction – Actualités Pharmaceutiques Volume 53, Issue 535, April 2014, Pages 27–30
63 2014 Nelson N. (2014) More Questions Than Answers Surrounding E-Cigarette Debate JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst dju101 doi:10.1093/jnci/dju101 first published online March 31, 2014
64 2014 Alpert HR, Agaku IT, Connolly GN (2015) – A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction. Tobacco Control (2014)
65 2014 Al-Abed A.; Chung T. et al. (2014) Perceptions, and Awareness of Electronic Cigarettes Among Healthcare Providers and In-Patients – 19th Denman Undergraduate Research Forum
66 2014 Hughes K., Hardcastle K. et al. (2014) “Most people I know have got one”: Young people’s perceptions and experiences of electronic cigarettes – Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University
67 2014 Hughes K., Hardcastle K. et al. (2014) E-cigarette access among young people in Cheshire and Merseyside Findings from the 2013 North West Trading Standards survey – Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University
68 2014 Sochor O. et al. (2014) Tobacco use and some characteristics of tobacco users. Preliminary results of “Kardiovize Brno 2030” Cor et Vasa
69 2014 Farsalinos K., Polosa R. (2014) – Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review. – Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety (2014)
70 2014 Behar, R., Davis, B., Wang, Y., Bahl, V., Lin, S. and Talbot, P. (2014) Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids. Toxicol In Vitro 28: 198–208.
71 2014 Burstyn, I. (2014) Peering through the mist: Systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks.BMC Public Health (2013)
72 2014 Farsalinos, K., Spyrou, A., Tsimopoulou, K., Stefopoulos, C., Romagna, G. and Voudris, V. (2014). Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices. Sci Rep (in press).
73 2014 Grana R.A., Popova L., Ling P.M. (2014) A Longitudinal Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Cessation JAMA Intern Med
74 2014 Nides, M., Leischow, S., Bhatter, M. and Simmons, M. (2014) Nicotine blood levels and short-term smoking reduction with an electronic nicotine delivery system. Am J Health Behav 38: 265–274.
75 2013 Ronk CJ, Hollins DM, Jacobsen DM (2013) – Evaluation of pulmonary function within a cohort of flavorings workers. – Inhal Toxicol. (2013) – Important!!!
76 2013 Dautzenberg B et al. (2013) – E-Cigarette: A New Tobacco Product for Schoolchildren in Paris – Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (2013)
77 2013 Adkison, S., O’Connor, R., Bansal-Travers, M., Hyland, A., Borland, R., Yong, H.H. et al. (2013) Electronic nicotine delivery systems: international tobacco control four-country survey. Am J Prev Med 44: 207–215.
78 2013 Barnoya, J. and Navas-Acien, A. (2013) Protecting the world from secondhand tobacco smoke exposure: where do we stand and where do we go from here? Nicotine Tob Res 15: 789–804.
79 2013 Bertholon, J., Becquemin, M., Roy, M., Roy, F., Ledur, D., Annesi Maesano, I. et al. (2013) Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha. Rev Mal Respir 30: 752–757.
80 2013 Bullen, C., Howe, C., Laugesen, M., McRobbie, H., Parag, V., Williman, J. et al. (2013) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 382: 1629–1637.
81 2013 Camenga, D., Delmerico, J., Kong, G., Cavallo, D., Hyland, A., Cummings, K. et al. (2013) Trends in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems by adolescents. Addict Behav 39(1): 338–340. Cantrell, F. (2013) Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposures. J Community Health 15 December 2013 (Epub ahead of print). DOI: 10.1007/s10900-013- 9807-5
82 2013 Caponnetto, P., Auditore, R., Russo, C., Cappello, G. and Polosa, R. (2013a) Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10: 446–461.
83 2013 Caponnetto, P., Campagna, D., Cibella, F., Morjaria, J., Caruso, M., Russo, C. et al. (2013b) EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study. PLoS One 8: e66317.
84 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2013) Notes from the field: electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students – United States, 2011-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62: 729–730. Chen, I. (2013) FDA summary of adverse events on electronic cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 15: 615–616.
85 2013 Czogala, J., Goniewicz, M., Fidelus, B., Zielinska- Danch, W., Travers, M. and Sobczak, A. (2013) Secondhand exposure to vapors from electronic cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res (11 December 2011 (Epub ahead of print). DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntt203
86 2013 Dawkins, L. (2013) Electronic cigarettes: what are they and are they effective? E-Cigarette Summit, London, UK (oral presentation). Available at: http://e-cigarettesummit. com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Summit- Presentations.pdf [accessed 22 December 2013].
87 2013 Dawkins, L. and Corcoran, O. (2013) Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular users. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231: 401–407.
88 2013 Dawkins, L., Turnern, J., Roberts, A. and Soar, K. (2013) ‘Vaping’ profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users. Addiction 108: 1115–1125.
89 2013 Dockrell, M., Morison, R., Bauld, L. and McNeill, A. (2013) E-Cigarettes: prevalence and attitudes in Great Britain. Nicotine Tob Res 15: 1737–1744.
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